Special Relativity     Proper time = time in the reference frame of a mass particle.    We have argued that detectable QM events depend on statistically independent, double subevents. Time is a consequence of the conservation of the expected frequency of QM events driven by random aether fluctuations, as seen in the particles own frame of reference. Quantum Mechanical events governs our clocks - and time. Proper time stretches in order to preserve the constant frequency of detectable QM events. It looks like relativity is a subdomain of Quantum Mechanics, like everything else. However, we are contesting the reality of aether interaction probability to see if there may be an even deeper reality that governs both fields.    In ferreting out our aether theory, we use the frame of reference belonging to the local aether. We have made a twist to Orwell, saying that “all frames of reference are equal, but the local aether frame is more equal than others” The reference frame of the local aether decides the path of the photon, and this is objectively a more important frame than any other reference frame. The problem is that we cannot detect it, but still it is an important tool for our thought experiments.    Let us look at how relativity can work according to two different hypotheses. In both hypothesis we assume that:    ·      The particle’s mass, as seen in the aether frame of reference, increases by a factor γ as the particle's velocity increases, because the number of Ks retained simultaneously increase by a factor γ. N Ks at rest in the aether becomes γN Ks at particle velocity v relative to the aether equilibrium. γ = √(1-v2/c2)  ·      Both a particle’s K absorption and K emission depends on interaction with Ks from the aether. Absorption is a hook-on process with matching Ks, while emission is a knock-out process with anti-matching Ks.    Hypothesis H1. K retention time in a mass particle is constant as seen in the aether frame.  1.      Retention time of Ks inside the particle is constant in aether time. tret = t0ret. All elementary particle have the same retention time in the local aether frame. (Ks have the same retention time in particles with proper mass as in photons locally)    2.     The particle’s exchange rate of Ks increase a factor γ in aether time, meaning it goes in proportion to its increased mass, and thus has a γ2 factor increase seen per time unit of proper time, because time dilation contribute a factor γ.    Hypothesis H2. K retention time is constant as seen in the mass particles own frame.  1.     Retention time of Ks inside the particle is constant in proper time. Seen from the aether tret = γt0ret. All elementary particle have the same K retention time in their own frame of reference. (Ks have a factor γ longer retention time in particles with proper mass as in photons)  2.    The particle’s exchange rate of Ks is constant in aether time, meaning it does not change with increased mass, and thus keeps a γ factor increase seen per time unit of proper time, because time dilation contribute a factor γ. The particle has a constant cross section for K interaction in the aether, but this is seen as a γ increase in proper time.    Throughout this publication we have referred to the real, but unobtainable local aether frame of reference. However, it should be possible to establish a fair idea about how we travel relative to the local aether equilibrium.     Suggestion about testing the directionality of our local aether.  A geostationary satellite can give extraordinary insight into the direction of our speed relative to the aether. We would need to measure the kinematic time dilation in segments of the satellite’s orbit, by synchronizing with an earthly based clock several times per orbit, and always using the same segments. We may see greater than expected kinematic time dilation in one direction, and less than expected kinematic time dilation in another direction. Then we would know our true direction through the aether relative to these lines in the plane of the satellite. The more a segment shows increased time dilation, the more we would be heading in that direction.   Definition of Time in Special Relativity.  Kinematic time dilation  According to H2 we can demonstrate mathematically why and in what way the aether absorption frequency goes down due to kinematic time dilation. From the electric field of a fast moving charge we have that the geometrical limitation in the access of Ks for absorption is 1/γ, which is the half width of the electric field. Out assumption then is that this reduces the retained K’s probability of interaction in proportion to the available angle for K absorption.    P(interaction of retained K) = Pr = P - δP = P(1-δP/P) ~ 1/γ    The free K will still have its normal probability of interaction, P. The probability of absorption is then proportional to the product of the two; P2(1-δP/P). Now we can use the exact same reasoning as we did in general relativity, demanding the constancy of K absorption and emission rates at any velocities in the particles own frame of reference.     P2(1-δP/P)/t = P2/t0                 t = t0(1-δP/P) = t0/γ    1-δP/P = 1/γ     q.e.d. when P is considered a constant in the local aether.                δP/P = 1-1/γ = (γ-1)/γ    We assume a stochastic knock-out mechanism for retained Ks, which makes the probability for emission the same as that for absorption. Ks must stay retained until there is a stochastic knock-out. Conclusion: Kinematic dilation of K retention time is what causes proper time to dilate relative to aether time at relative speed v. Fig 1 shows a particle of proper mass at rest during the time of one K-“orbital”. On average, the particle has a ball-shaped affinity for K interaction, as shown in fig. 1a. Any “orbital” is possible and equally probable for the Ks, and the same goes for the direction from which the particle absorbs and emits its Ks. Fig 1b illustrate the projection of an equatorial K “orbital”. Fig. 1c shows one round of the average K-“orbital” stretched out from A to B.  Fig 2 follows the same particle, now at velocity v, during the time of one full K “orbital”, which takes longer time than for the particle at rest when measured by the time scale of the aether. (It is exactly the same time, when measured in the ref frame of the particle itself) The average K-path in the particle is somewhat stretched out (fig 2a). The particle absorbs and emits its Ks perpendicular to the surface of fig. 2A, which is showing angular distribution of interaction probability rather than actual particle shape. The direction from which the particle absorbs and emits its Ks has shifted in favor of more sideways K absorption and emission. The average K-path has an “orbital” from A to B, and since movement and time is involved, B has moved relative to A. Fig 2b shows the projection of one K-“orbital” from A to B. Fig. 2c shows one K-“orbital” from A to B with “sidewalls” unfolded. Since the Ks propagate at speed c, it will use longer time (on the aether scale) to cover a longer distance, and this factor of extra time is proportional to the kinematic time dilation factor γ. The average K propagate forwards with an average angle of φ. Using Pythagoras give us:    t = t0/√(1-v2/c2)= γt0   Fig. 3 shows the radius of both figures from above. The transversal dimension is not affected.    Time – a general definition:    General Relativity:  Local aether time = K retention time in a gravitational potential   Special Relativity:       Proper time = K retention time in mass particles in motion   K retention time sets the time for all elementary particles, photons and mass particles alike.   K retention time in elementary particles is the true motor of time.    Whether it is correct to include the time of the photon, can be discussed.   The photon travels in the local aether, and has a time according to the gravitation potential locally.  The local time will influence the photon, and in that sense it has a time dependency.       Previous: General Relativity   Next: Scientific Method

Forces by Proxy

Michelson & Morley’s aether experiment

Properties of the aether

Gravity

Particles

The Electromagnetic Force

The Strong Force

Quantum Mechanics and the Uncertainty Principle

General Relativity

Special Relativity

Scientific Method

Some support for the aether

Authors

Jørgen Karlsen

Einar Nyberg Karlsen

Editor

PrinciplePhysics.com

Jorgen Karlsen

Høvik, Norway

Illustrations:

Tormod Førre

Acknowledgements:

Trond Erik Hillestad

Dr. Ian Ashmore

Prof. Kaare Olaussen

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PrinciplePhysics.com has as its main goal to present new theories and models which can help solve some of the principle problems in physics. The topics will range from elementary particles, nuclear physics and quantum mechanics to  gravity and general relativity. A second edition of Forces by Proxy was published as an attachment to the Norwegian journal “Astronomi”, 2017 – 3. Here we present a short version, which was first released on May 17th 2017