The Electromagnetic Force   Electrostatic Force    In order to explain electrostatic forces, we need two types of aether units. From now on we will call the aether unit K. Ks must exist with opposite “signs” in order to accommodate electric charge; K+ and K-.   We have deducted the following properties of charged particles: ·      A particle with positive charge  has higher probability for absorbing a K+ than for absorbing a K-. A positively charged particle also generates extra positive electric charge in the process of exchanging Ks with the aether. We assume that a small fraction of the K- will have their sign switched to K+ during an encounter with a positively charged particle, thus creating a surplus K+ flux radiating from the particle. ·     A particle with negative charge  relates to K- accordingly The core principles for a force working through a skewed K flux is that the interaction process of K absorption, retention and emission by particles takes place as follows:  ·      Repulsive forces:  An abundance of K+ hits from a given direction causes a direct repulsive force to a positively charged particle. ·      Attractive forces:  A deficiency of K+ hits from a given direction causes an indirect attractive force by proxy on a positively charged particle when the average background K flux constitutes a relative K+ surplus, and thereby executes the pressure necessary for what is perceived as a directly attractive force. Model for electric K absorption in electron 1. The electron interacts more frequently with K- than with K+. For simplicity, we show it as if all K- are absorbed, but only 1 K+ (1 out of 7 here) is absorbed, and has its sign switched. An output of 8K- versus 6K+ exemplifies the enhanced potency of the K- flux coming from the electron. (Most particles will absorb almost equal numbers of K+ and K-, so the effect is not as brutal as shown here. The linear presentation is also a simplification.) Electrostatic force from Electron 1 on Electron 2. The biased flux with a surplus of K- and a deficiency of K+ hit a neighboring electron 2 from the left , while the neutral K-flux comes in from the right. Electron 2 absorbs 8K- and 1 K+ = 9 K impulse transfers from the side of Electron 1. From the neutral flux from the other side, Electron 2 will absorb 7 K- and 1 K+ = 8 Ks. The net effect is a surplus of 1 K impulse, pK, pushing the electrons apart. And this is the electrostatic force, F, where equal charges repel each other.   The electrostatic force emerges when the modified K flux from the first electron hits a second electron. We here demonstrate that equal charges repel each other.  If we place a positive charge in the place of electron 2, it will be hit with 6+1 K from the left and 7+1 K from the right, and then it is pushed towards electron 1 by the background K-flux. Opposite charges attract each other through a Force by Proxy.      The Magnetic Force.       Lorentz force law  states that t he electromagnetic force F from  the electric and magnetic fields E and B on a charge q travelling at velocity v is               F =  q(E + v x B)                                                                               Magnetic field generation at K emission from the current I taken at two opposite points in the loop Electric current I with 2 electrons moving at velocity ve inside the wire, emitting 1K- from each side, with impulse pK and -pK. In order to be emitted towards the center, both Ks must have their magnetic vectors BK pointing upwards.   Charged particle at velocity vq absorbs the two Ks which carry a biased magnetic K flux: B =  ΣBK = 2 BK There is a particle q with negative charge and velocity vq in the middle of the ring (for instance an electron). The charged particle will absorb more K- than K+. At impact / absorption of 2 K- the net pressure force is 0 at the absorbing particle, and the particle travels on unaffected (for a very short while). The particle now carries a skewed population of retained Ks, with an excess of upwards K magnetic vectors 2BK    Magnetic force effect at skewed K emission from the particle When the particle emits the 2 Ks, the cross product of the particle’s velocity and the magnetic vectors BK of the two Ks decide their direction of emission, as indicated by the red arrow with the double K impulse 2pK. The observed magnetic force will be in the recoil direction of the emitted Ks, as indicated by the direction of F.   The working mechanism for the magnetic force is based on a recoil effect at K emission from charged particles.         Previous: Particles    Next:  The Strong Force

Forces by Proxy

Michelson & Morley’s aether experiment

Properties of the aether

Gravity

Particles

The Electromagnetic Force

The Strong Force

Quantum Mechanics and the Uncertainty Principle

General Relativity

Special Relativity

Scientific Method

Some support for the aether

Authors

Jørgen Karlsen

Einar Nyberg Karlsen

Editor

PrinciplePhysics.com

Jorgen Karlsen

Høvik, Norway

Illustrations:

Tormod Førre

Acknowledgements:

Dr. Ian Ashmore

Prof. Kaare Olaussen